Several years ago I decided to try my hand at making an Irish Cream in my kitchen. A little research showed, to my surprise, that Irish Cream is really something invented purely for marketing in the 70’s…the 1970’s. So there were no 18th century classic Irish recipes to be found…or that I could find. There are, however a plethora of modern day home recipes that are available online.  Marketing invention or not, Irish Cream appears like a genuinely good idea and also seems like something that would be a prime candidate for the value added by making it yourself at home.


I generally search through books and the web for as many recipes as I can when learning something new. I filter out the ones that I feel are nonsensical and then compile a list of common denominators of them all. I then use my best judgment to come up with a prototype recipe to go to kitchen with. Most of the recipes I found for Irish Cream seemed to amount to glorified chocolate milk and didn’t make me think value added. Most recipes rarely used egg as an emulsifier, more often relying on things like evaporated or sweetened condensed milk to gather viscosity. Most rarely used heat.

The most common base flavors incorporated into the home recipes that I found included chocolate, vanilla, coffee, almond and cinnamon. Many of the recipes relied heavily on either coffee or chocolate or both as the dominant flavor and many also used things like cinnamon and almond which I like, but don’t feel are present in Irish Cream. Most recipes seemed to lack subtlety in the base flavors, thus creating more of a chocolate cream or coffee cream.


Milk, Half and Half, Cream, Evaporated Milk, Sweet Condensed Milk, Non-Dairy Creamer, Dry Milk

Eggs, Burnt Sugar, Cane Sugar, Beet Sugar, Honey

Vanilla, Cinnamon, Dried Coffee, Fresh Coffee, Coffee Infusion, Almond Extract, Cocoa Nibs, Cocoa Powder, Baking Chocolate, Chocolate Syrup, Chocolate Extract, Coconut Extract



The history of Irish Cream and Bailey’s is very sketchy and little doubt glossed over or kept in the closet, so to speak, by its marketers. A long storied history is what is implied by the name and the marketing. Nonetheless, it is a delicious and simple idea.

Bailey’s Irish Cream was brought to market in 1974 by Gilbey’s of Ireland. There was no R. A. Bailey behind the name. Wikipedia asserts that the name was inspired by the Bailey Hotel in London, others hold it was just an easy and identifiable Irish name used purely for marketing. In any case, it was an instant and enormous hit and remains so today inspiring other competitors as well as new flavors.

The Bailey’s website says their recipe contains fresh dairy cream, a triple pot distilled whiskey blend, a proprietary blend of natural cocoa extracts and a blend of cane and beet sugars. Bailey’s states that it does not contain eggs. No other ingredients are listed but Wikipedia says in it’s listing that other ingredients “…include herbs and sugar.” That is the wild card that seems to be the point where many decide to throw in cinnamon, almond and coffee. The coffee seems to also be related to more hearsay that Gilbey’s came up with Bailey’s Irish Cream in an attempt to use up surplus whiskey by making a bottled Irish Coffee. (Homedistillation). Coffee and chocolate seem to be goes at this point.

The Carolan’s Irish Cream website says its base uses fresh cream, honey, water, stabilizers and natural colors that are combined in stainless steel tanks and heated at high temperatures. They don’t mention coffee or chocolate/cocoa or vanilla as flavoring agents, just honey. Their spirit base is whiskey and unspecified ‘spirit’ that I can only assume is neutral grain spirit. They describe the taste of Carolan’s as “Vanilla flavour with a smooth texture. Creamy taste, accented with the burnished gold of aged spirits and wildflowers honey.” A big description that doesn’t really say much. Other than the cream, I am not sure what is in this and am not interested in using honey in this recipe. Zero from them.


One key necessity to making a homemade cream or cream liqueur, that is often overlooked, is a binding agent or emulsifier or emulsifying process to keep the cream liqueur from separating in storage. Egg yolks are commonly used in the home as emulsifiers in things like mayonnaise, custards, pastry creams and egg nogs. Artificial and natural stabilizers (slightly different from emulsifiers) like pectin, guar gum, agar, gelatin etc. are often used either at home or by manufacturers to help in this process. Other methods not readily available in the home are the use of high pressure heating or some other unspecified proprietary method of homogenization, are the most common ways to bind ingredients together. The manufacturing of cream liqueurs generally employs the industrial method of high pressure and heat.

Since the high pressure heat method is not readily duplicated at home, I decided to use the traditional egg yolk based, or pastry cream, method of emulsification that I also use for making a Mexican style rum egg nog called Rompope and a Puerto Rican coconut cream liqueur called Coquito.

Essentially this is making a flavored pastry cream and then halting the process (so it doesn’t become too thick to drink) straining and cooling the cream and finally adding a base spirit. The Irish Coffee story seemed plausible so I decided to incorporate coffee into the recipe. Chocolate was a given. I also wanted to add some vanilla. To me, vanilla is essential to the base of any cream. All these had to be blended subtly so as not to overwhelm any other flavor.


Pastry Cream Method

To make approximately 28 oz of Irish Cream:

4 Large Egg Yolks
16 oz Whole Milk
1 Tblsp Cocoa Nibs or 1/2 oz of unsweetened baking chocolate
1 oz Brewed French Roast Coffee or 1/2 Tsp Instant Espresso
6 oz Cane Sugar
2 Tsp Pure Vanilla Extract

6-8 oz Jameson Irish Whiskey or Irish Whiskey of your preference

Slowly heat the milk, sugar, coffee, vanilla, and cocoa nibs. Bring to a very low near-simmer for approximately 10 minutes to bring out the nibs and coffee. Stir frequently.


In a non-reactive mixing bowl add the egg yolks and whisk together.


When the milk mixture is ready, remove from heat and strain into an appropriately sized mixing bowl. This will be used immediately in the egg yolks.


Now slowly pour and whisk this hot milk mixture into the egg yolks a little bit at a time. It’s good to have an assistant at this stage. Doing this slowly and in parts will ensure that the eggs do not curdle from the heat. Keep doing this…always whisking…until all the milk is incorporated.


Now return the milk and egg mixture to a clean saucepan on low heat and whisk/stir continuously until it begins to thicken. Continue until it is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon.

IMG_8580 IMG_8581

Fine strain this again and store in an appropriately sized container that can be covered and cooled off in a refrigerator. The fine straining at this point will remove any bits of egg or milk that may have congealed.

When the cream is cool, it should be thick like an Alfredo sauce. Add whiskey and stir or shake. Taste and adjust as you see fit.


It is now ready for sharing, drinking or storage in the fridge. Shelf life is several months, but if it tastes as good as it should, it won’t last that long.

Feel free to add more or less sugar depending on how sweet you want your Irish Cream. This can be non-alcoholic but it should then be used within a week or turn it into ice cream..

Once you know this base method of making a cream liqueur, you can be branch off and try many other flavors; coconut, hazelnut, cinnamon, almond and so on. Also the choice of base spirit can be almost endless. Rum, Tequila Añejo, Bourbon, sweet chocolaty Amaros, Cognacs and brandies,  etc..

If you have any questions, please reach out to me, I would be glad to help you through this recipe or answer any questions about drinks and drink making .





There is something that has bothered me since I began bartending 12 years ago and that is the typically unquestioned use of the champagne flute for most sparkling wine and champagne cocktails.

During the cocktail dark ages (70’s-80’s) champagne was still often being sipped from a coupe, even if it was made of plastic, and champagne cocktails were something that Cary Grant drank in the 40’s-50’s…but he and everyone else generally drank them out of coupes or other cocktail glasses. The champagne and sparkling cocktail made a big comeback with the cocktail revolution 20 years later, but somehow the coupe got left behind.

Wine had it’s renaissance in the US around the time of the cocktail dark ages and flutes rapidly took the place of coupes for sipping your bubbles, even if they were plastic. It made more sense to drink sparkling wines from something that would keep those bubbles from dissipating quickly and direct those wonderful aromas to your nose. The aesthetics of either glass for sparkling are a matter of personal taste, but flutes did allow the bubbles to put on a long show up the glass to freedom.

But even the flute is now falling out of favor for sipping champagne as a new wave of knowledgeable oenophiles abandon the flute for the even more bubbles friendly, yet aesthetic, tulip style glass.

All of this is great for enjoying sparkling wines, but what about sparkling wine cocktails? It seems that most of the cocktail revolutionaries that helped stoke the cocktail renaissance just opted for the flute when making champagne cocktails as it was de rigueur and those revolutionaries were just getting on their feet. It seemed appropriate. This isn’t to say that they are never made in coupes or other glassware, but the trend and go-to glass was, and still is, the flute for the bulk champagne/sparkling wine cocktails. Doing a quick search for champagne or other sparkling wine cocktails, one sees that most tend to be photographed in flutes. Every bar but one that I have worked in that served all sparkling cocktails served them in flutes.

Before we get into the discussion on glassware I would like to loosely define a few things.

What is a champagne cocktail? For the purposes of this discussion and to avoid confusion at this point, I would like to define a ‘champagne cocktail’ as any drink that includes champagne or sparkling wine as an ingredient or the base ingredient of a more complex mixture. The true and narrow definition of the named drink, Champagne Cocktail, is that it is a like a strict cocktail (sugar, bitters, spirit) with champagne filling in for the spirits. Yes, some add brandy as well as champagne.



Some commonly known Sparkling Wine/Champagne cocktails








There are hundreds more and they keep coming as many talented mixologists keep creating riffs and new cocktails made with sparkling wine.  Sparkling wines are also often used in punches. Sparkling wines can be used as a luxury replacement for sodas in many drinks. It is a great way to stretch out a cocktail and or lighten it up. The acidity of a brut or dry champagne can be used to balance any extra sweetness of sugars in syrups, juices and liqueurs. It certainly has no limits to it’s use in cocktails except what I see as the generally limited functionality of the flute.

Now why would the flute be better for champagne but not necessarily better for cocktails?

Let’s start with the accepted reasons it is better for champagne.

A fluted glass focuses bubbles and aroma to your nose. Those aromas are part of the experience and pleasure of a well made sparkling wine. The flute is narrow so it focuses those bubbles to your nose and palate and also, since it is narrow,  won’t diffuse those bubbles and get flat quite as fast in a room temp glass. Like wine glassware, they aren’t meant to be filled to, or close to, the rim allowing for the aromas to gather in the upper part of the glass. About 3/4 or 3/5 full is about right for a proper pour of sparkling wine.

Those two reasons are the biggest for using flutes over coupes for sparkling wine. Other reasons are the aesthetics of the bubbles flowing up the glass to the top..it does look elegant.

But for cocktails and other drinks that use sparkling wine, in my opinion, coupes and other similar cocktail glassware fare much better than flutes in aesthetics as well as functionality. The champagne cocktail also opens the door to using other styles of glassware. Collins and other long drink glasses, large rocks or double old fashioneds, wine glasses and goblets can be wonderful when making a champagne/sparkling cocktail. Once sparkling wine begins to mix, it can be free to extend it’s realm to all kinds of glassware appropriate for each mixture and flutes are not made to contain ice.


Coupes were and are used for cocktails today as well as for cocktails and champagne during the classical period of mixology leading up to prohibition and during prohibition in Europe. They are better suited for champagne cocktails than for champagne for several reasons.

In lieu of unlimited refrigeration space, coupes and other cocktail glassware can be pre-chilled with ice much more easily, and thus faster, than flutes.  Flute are generally not, if ever, chilled in most bars and restaurants since they are often doing double duty for cocktails and champagne service as well as part of the refrigeration space concern mentioned above. Flutes should not be chilled for wine service, but should be for cocktail service.

The coupe offers a larger surface for the number of complementary added aromas that are generally present in cocktails. Champagne aromas can often be much more subtle and thus require the narrow mouth of the tulip or flute to collect them. Cocktail aromas often need more space to work with that champagne just won’t stand up in.

The coupe offers easier accessibility and space for the bartender to work with, also making it faster and easier to make and mix drinks in them.

The tall narrow nature of the flute often requires more manipulation with a spoon or other tool to mix properly. Over manipulation and stirring is also an enemy of bubbles.  Even worse is the light shake or rolling to mix carbonated drinks I often see in many bars.

Coupes drain in a more aesthetically pleasing way. By that I mean when a Mimosa is half drunk, it leaves orange matter from the bubbles along the inside of the long iceless glass. This generally happens when fruit, juice and sugars are mixed with sparkling wine.

The flute is not a very stable glass to mix in or work with in a busy bar.

A coupe is also arguably easier to drink cocktails from. When sipping from a flute you must cock your head back the more the flute becomes drained. This is greatly diminished with a shallow glass like the coupe and better for drinking cocktails.


Since a coupe is easier to chill (in lieu of unlimited glassware refrigeration most bars and homes don’t have), using a coupe makes more functional sense. Chilling the glass before pouring anything straight up into it helps diminish the loss of carbonation for sparkling drinks and also assists in maintaining the chill of any drink served up. This helps sustain that effervescence because the more a liquid warms or is warm, the more it wants to expand. That means pouring cold bubbles into warm glasses of any kind makes those bubbles fly away faster upon impact. Chilling your glass and anything that goes into your glass makes an enormous difference to any drink that uses sodas or sparkling wines.

When one adds carbonated things to non-carbonated things or vice versa, the result is immediately diminished carbonation regardless of the chill factors mentioned above.

This means there are a many things at work against the carbonation of your drink. Some we can diminish and some we cannot, so it is imperative to attend to those few details that can help your cocktail be at it’s best. The coupe and other glassware can really have the advantage over a flute in these cases.



Chilling the base ingredients with a quick stir over ice before adding them to any glass to be topped with bubbles is a very important, yet overlooked, step in keeping your sparkling cocktail, sparkling.


Make sure your carbonated ingredients are well chilled beforehand as well. That means your Prosecco, club soda, 7 Up, Ginger Beer, tonic etc…As explained above, warm soda falls flat fast, is difficult to work with and also stresses your ice. Having a flat and weak Gin and Tonic with already worn out ice floating to the top may as well have the nasty brown lime from the garnish tray thrown on it to finish the effect.


Your coupe or cocktail glass must be chilled.  Just fill with ice along with a little water and let it sit while you go ahead and mix your drink. Generally the glass is chilled enough by the time you have your drink mixed and are ready to pour it. Dump the ice water. A couple of quick shakes of the coupe or cocktail glass will remove most of the remaining drops.

Double Old Fashioned

Double Old Fashioned




While I sing the praises of the coupe over the flute for champagne cocktails without ice, I also love using other styles of glassware. Tall glasses for sparkling long drinks, large sized rocks glasses, wine goblets and glasses. A Mimosa served in a tall glass on ice is delicious, cold, and wonderful looking. It also gives you the space to add the non-alcoholic mixers and garnishes, while still having room for the champagne to make a drink that fits in it’s space and won’t be drained in 3 seconds flat, or be flat in 3 seconds flat. These are also the perfect style drink to use large cubed ice. The large ice melts slowly and takes up less space, while maintaining the chill and carbonation you want down to the last sip.

This is the time when calling your cocktails ‘coolers’ and ‘spritzers’ may seem more appropriate. The Aperol Spritz is getting fantastically popular now, to the point of marginalization, but really is a delicious, fun, beautiful, low alcohol drink and style. Perfect for making in a chilled coupe, or over ice in a tall glass or wine glass with a slice of orange and/or a splash or fresh orange or grapefruit juice. I cannot think of a sparkling wine cocktail that seems completely inappropriate served on ice in any of these glasses, with the possible exception of the classic Champagne Cocktail.

I love glassware and choosing the proper one is very important to the function, as well as form, of all your drinks and cocktails.

Here is an updated version of a cocktail I did in 2013. I substituted Prosecco for Club Soda



.5 oz Lime Juice
1 oz Grapefruit Juice
Chilled Prosecco
Grapefruit Peel
16 oz Highball
Large Format Ice
Chill the gin, Cocci Americano and juices in a mixing glass. Strain into 16oz highball filled with large ice (eg. kold draft). Top with Prosecco. 1 or 2 gentle turns dragging from bottom of glass to top with bar spoon to mix the top and bottom. Express your grapefruit peel over the top, add to drink and add a long straw.
The dryness/acidity of the Prosecco may require the deletion or diminution of the lime juice.
Riffs can include different styles of sparkling wine, gin and amaros/bitters. I suggest Aperol or Campari for the Cocci as wonderful alternatives. Adjust for sweetness.


I was very interested in the fruit drinking vinegars over the last few years. It seems natural and I often sip from cider vinegar or balsamic vinegar bottles for that funky acid taste.

 When I was young, my grandmother would tell me her sister in Germany would often drink vinegar. It always came up when I was making salad dressing and would just eat the dressing.

I remember old timers would drink Kraut juice. Sounded gross to me then, but the whole family of fermented drinks, fruits and vegetables now seems so obviously delicious as well as healthy.

I was in Portland for the 2011 Portland Cocktail Week and went to Pok Pok and tried some of their vinegars and chicken wings and I decided I had to make some. Chicken wings too.


I feel like I have always been making rice vinegar syrup.

There are a few things I am never out of in my kitchen cabinet; Soy-Brown Sugar Syrup and Rice Vinegar White Cane Sugar Syrup. I use them so often in so many things.
I think of these and other similar ingredients as bases to build on. I use the vinegar syrup for food dishes like Cucumber salad, Hawaiian Sweet and Sour Sauce, other salad dressings and marinades.
I make it without any other flavors or ingredients so I can use it as a base. The rice vinegar is fruity, light and not aggressive. It accepts other flavor infusions very well and it is light in color.
To make the syrup I just use 2 parts sugar to one part vinegar and simmer low on the stove until the sugar has dissolved. It is really just a rich simple syrup using vinegar instead of water.
What this does is add an acidity to a one dimensional sweet syrup.
Sweet and Sour
Now you have acid and sweet in one neat package.

Did some investigating and found that the Romans and Byzantines drank something called Posca, spoiled/ sour wine, juices etc that would be mixed with herbs and other flavors. It was a natural source of Vitamin C and related to lacto fermentation in such things as sauerkraut, kimchi and kombucha. Going bad could mean going good.

Drinking vinegars essentially vanished from Western diets, but are well known in many Asian nations (Korea, Japan, China). It has been rediscovered in this country and thought about taking the rice vinegar sugar base into the drinking vinegar and cocktail realm.

I use the rice vinegar syrup as the base for my old school Hawaiian Sweet and Sour Sauce, which is really fresh pineapple that is ultra pureed and then drained of the natural juices.  To the rice vinegar base I add the juices and simmer. Once it is a syrup, I can then add the pineapple puree and voila! You have a bad ass sweet and sour sauce.

Korean Drinking Vinegar

Assorted retail options

But this is really, also, a fruit vinegar so I thought I would try it with other fruits and strain out the solid fruit matter after the infusion.
It worked fantastically.
It is simple. It is good. It lasts and has many uses including drinking it mixed with soda or in cocktails.
4 Cups White Cane Sugar
2 cups Plain Rice Vinegar (some come flavored or spiced, so check the label)
Place ingredients into appropriate sized sauce pan.
Stir until it is as dissolved as possible before placing on heat. This minimizes chances of burning or caramelizing the sugar on the bottom of the sauce pan.
Vinegar Syrup

Place pan on low heat and stir frequently until the sugar is dissolved. Make sure you keep the sides of the pan clean of grains of sugar. I use a heat resistant silicone spatula. Stray sugar granules could cause the syrup to start to crystallize in the storage jar. Nothing to freak about though.
It is important to use at least 2 parts sugar to 1 part vinegar (you can even use a little more). This is a way of ensuring that your syrup does not just taste like vinegar. Even though it is vinegar, we want the sugar to help tame the vinegar sharpness. The fruit will help even more. You want hints of vinegar, not raw vinegar taste.
Simmer until the syrup is clear and no sugar crystals remain. Approximately 15-20 minutes
sugar crystals on side of pan
Clear Syrup
Cool and pour into glass jar. Does not need to be refrigerated. I keep a jar always in my cupboard.
2 Cups Rice Vinegar Syrup
1 Pint of Fresh Raspberries
Pour cleaned raspberries into appropriate sized non-reactive deep bowl or cambro. Heat the vinegar until it simmers. Pour the vinegar over the raspberries and stir a bit to make sure everything is incorporated and cover.You can mash the berries slightly but don’t blend them. This allows for the juice to be released and minimize the particle sediment for aesthetics.
Some fruit needs to be crushed or mashed. Each fruit selected for your vinegar may need some special attention. This is the basic process.
Hot vinegar syrup. Macerate fruit. Strain fruit.
Allow the fruit to macerate over night. Then strain and bottle.
This also does not need refrigeration, but it wont hurt it if you do.

Straining Raspberries

Finished Raspberry Vinegar
Suggestions for fruits:
All Berries
Passion Fruit
Sour Sop

Spices and herbs can work well, when used appropriately, as the base or as a compliment to your fruit.

Suggestions for Combos:
Strawberry and Tellicherry Peppercorn
Pineapple and Sage
Pineapple and Ginger
Guava and Ginger
My rule of thumb for using a spice as a compliment is use less of the spice or herb than you might think. The vinegar syrup will take on a lot of the flavors and a little goes a long way. You want your Strawberry Peppercorn to taste like Strawberry Peppercorn, not Peppercorn Strawberry.
You can also use things like citrus peel or make combos of fruits that go well together. Lemon Peel and Pineapple, or Orange Peel and Cherry.
2 oz London Dry Gin or Solid Vodka
½ oz Raspberry Vinegar
In mixing glass filled with ice, add both ingredients and stir.
Strain into tasteful, chilled cocktail glass or on one large ice cube in small rocks glass.
Yes this is a Briar… in homage to the Bramble.
1 Cucumber, seeded, peeled and dice cut.
Thin sliced red onion to taste
3 tblsp Plain Rice Vinegar Syrup or to taste
Pinch of Salt
Zest of half a lime
Mix dressing and pour over cucumbers in bowl. Serve or refrigerate for up to 4 hours.
Try chopped Napa cabbage instead of cucumber. It is amazing and a great palate cleanser.

2 oz Fruit Vinegar
Tall Glass
Club Soda
Fruit for garnish

(The Settlement Cookbook, Milwaukee, WI 1947)

4 qts Raspberries
1 qt Vinegar

Mash red or black raspberries, and cover with the vinegar.Let stand over night or longer; strain. To each pint of juice, add 1 pound of sugar, boil 20 minutes; then put in sterilized bottles and keep in cool place. Use 2 tablespoons to a glass of water.

(Buckeye Cookery, Mpls, MN circa 1880)

Place raspberries in a stone jar, cover them with good cider vinegar, let stand over night; next morning strain, and to one pint of juice add one pint of sugar, boil ten minutes, and bottle while hot. —Mrs. Judge West

(Buckeye Cookery, Mpls, MN circa 1880)

One quart of water, table-spoon sifted ginger, three heaping table-spoons sugar, half pint vinegar.


I had been playing with orgeats and horchatas (Irish Oat Cream) in mid 2010 testing out different nuts and grains and methods. I particularly liked how Steel Cut Irish Oats worked in an orgeat cream. I even used it in a Cocktail for the Bacardi Legacy Competition (Miami 2011) in a cocktail called the Dublin Pirate.
I thought about trying apple cider (Apple Cider-Oat Cream) instead of water as the base for the oat cream to add another dimension. It seemed obvious, I thought, since apples, oats and cinnamon are a natural combination.
I was very happy with the results. It was one of those things that turns out exactly as you envision it.
Steel Cut Oats

I was excited about playing with it and sharing, so I made a larger batch soon after the experiment while refining the process. It’s almost always the case that the process and method of a new recipe will be refined in terms of quality of end product and/or flow of the recipe. This was no exception.

It happened that I finished this batch of Apple Cider-Steel Cut Oat Cream the week of Halloween 2011.
The timing was perfect as on Halloween night I was asked to make some hot drinks for a few friends outside who were handing candy out to Trick or Treaters and being generally neighborly. It was getting pretty chilly by the time evening set in and seemed like a perfect plan to help keep the neighborhood festivities flowing.
I decided on an aged rum as the base spirit so figured a little butter would work to make it a buttered rum.
Immersion Blender

The results could not have been better. It was the perfect blend of buttery and creamy oat flavor with apples and cinnamon and a touch of acidity from the apple cider. The velvety texture was very pleasant. It melted in your mouth and satisfied both palate and bones. The light acidity from the cider along with a small pinch of salt more than balanced the sweetness of this drink.

The cream also mixes well with most aged spirits in hot and cold drinks. Bourbon, Rye, Añejo Tequila, Apple Brandy, Calvados, Cognac etc.. are all wonderful base spirits to use.
This hot buttered rum, though, is now winter tradition with me.

Straining Oats from Cream
Finished Cream
Serves 4
8 oz Dry Quality Aged Rum
16 oz Apple Cider Oatmeal Cream
4 Tblsp Unsalted Butter
Pinch of Salt
4 Coffee Mugs (8oz Size)
In a saucepan add all ingredients except the rum. Bring to a simmer while stirring frequently.
Add 2 oz of rum to each of the coffee mugs and top with hot Apple-Oat Cream.
Serve with a cinnamon stick or just a small spoon.


2 oz Quality Light Rum
½ oz Lime Juice
1 oz Irish Oat Cream
½ oz Arrack Punsch (Swedish Punch)
Angostura Bitters
Lime Wheel
Add all ingredients except the bitters to an iced shaker tin.
Shake hard. Strain into iced rocks glasses. Top with dash or two of Angostura Bitters. Lime wheel.


Keeping It Simple
A Reengineered Sea Breeze and Madras
Todd Appel

I have many favorite drinks and cocktails I love to sip on and entertain with during the northern summer months.
Peaches, cherries and berries abound and are wonderful ingredients in numerous drinks and mix with nearly every spirit available. Most of these drinks are not difficult, but they generally have some lengthy prep involved. Peach infused bourbon lemonades with tart cherries, Bitter Lemon Sodas with gin, White Sangria with summer fruits, cognac, curaçao and white Spanish wines among many others.
But one of my favorite ones for pure, simple refreshment is a re-engineered take on a Sea Breeze that anyone can make and take to parties, picnics, BBQs, the pool or beach. In reality this is a blend of Madras and Sea Breeze cocktails, but nothing like most people have ever had.
It doesn’t have a laundry list of ingredients. It doesn’t take a lot of prep work or lengthy infusions. It can be made on the fly and will please everyone and anyone.
The key to this drink is using fresh squeezed citrus. The difference between fresh grapefruit and orange juice and the refrigerator carton counterparts that say “fresh” is measured in light years. The boxed stuff doesn’t taste, smell or feel like the real stuff. They are thick, sour, bitter, and murky.They aren’t worth drinking in any manner that I can think of.
The real stuff is refreshing, naturally sweet but not cloying or syrupy. They are wonderfully aromatic and such a pleasure to drink. Even if the summer months are not the high season for citrus in the U.S., you can still get delicious grapefruits and oranges.
By simply using fresh orange juice and fresh grapefruit juice you can make a seemingly ordinary vodka drink into something people will remember.  With no added sugar.
Oranges and Grapefruits
Citrus Juice Mix
4 Parts Orange Juice
2 Parts Grapefruit Juice
1 Part Cranberry Juice
All citrus juice MUST be fresh squeezed and strained. Use juice style oranges (Valencia etc.). They are made for juicing and give more juice than navel oranges. I prefer ruby red grapefruit, but white grapefruit will work too.
I generally make at least a few quarts of this at one time. If you are going to make it, you might as well make a lot of it. It is great for breakfast if you don’t use it all in your poolside drinks.
If you feel so inclined you can make your own cranberry juice by simmering fresh cranberries with some sugar and a little water, puree and then strain. But I find this is not nearly as important as the fresh citrus, so a good quality store bought cranberry juice works fine here. I try to think in terms of “value added” when deciding such things. Making fresh OJ has a lot of value added to your small amount of labor. Making cranberry juice doesn’t have nearly the value added. I think the same way with food and drink.
The base spirit I suggest is a good quality PLAIN vodka, but I really love a good London Dry gin in this as well. Tequila or rum would work beautifully too. Try to avoid flavored vodkas here. I believe they diminish the natural freshness of drinks like this.
By the Pool

2 oz Absolut Vodka
4 oz Citrus Juice Blend
16 oz Cup or Glass
Long Straw
No garnish needed
Fill glass with ice. Add vodka and top with citrus juice blend. Stir.
In a proper glass
If you feel so inclined again, I suggest both grapefruit and orange peel for garnish. You can make the garnishes ahead of time by making the peels from the citrus before you juice them and keeping them in a container in the fridge. Wash the fruit before making the peels.
Citrus Peel

For best results, chill the juice before hand. It isn’t as shocking to your ice, especially on a hot day. Keep it in your cooler filled with ice or in the refrigerator at home.
This recipe is just a guide. You can use more or less vodka and the amount of juice is really what fits in the glass after adding your spirits. Use your best judgment and your own taste.


Since Americans were introduced to Cachaça (ka-sha-sa) over the last 15 years in the form of the Caipirinha (Kai-pee-reen-ya) and the many new cachaças that have been marketed here, there has been a little confusion with the proper method of making one, and even from some of the best bartenders around the country.

First and foremost, there are 4 things that always go into a Caipirinha in Brasil. Lime, white superfine sugar, un-aged cachaça and ice. It should be shaken. You can use simple syrup but it absolutely must be at least 2-1 rich syrup. Superfine or “Bar” sugar is the best choice. This kind of sugar acts to macerate the lime and extract the lime oils as well as dissolve easier than regular American table sugar. Once you understand the traditional method, you can then understand and do riffs on this basic theme

I’ve spent many years traveling or living in Brasil and have seen Caipirinhas made from Rio to Recife and from beach to bar. There are always some subtle differences to each person making one but there are some subtle common denominators to making the classic Caipirinha like a Brazilian that everyone in Brasil does.

On a beach it will most likely be made in a makeshift plastic container/shaker and served in a plastic cup.

But in a bar it will more likely be served in a small rocks glass.

The proportions will vary depending on the size of the cup or glass. We will be using an 8 oz rocks glass in the demonstration here.

I will only be giving rough quantities for the drink, they will vary according to glass since that is generally the way you regulate quantities….and it is a good way to get a feeling for making this without measuring tools…the natural or every day way!

An 8 oz rocks glass is perfect for 1 small cut up lime and one heaping tablespoon of fine sugar, ice and filled the rest of the way with cachaça. Let’s talk about sugar first.


The table sugar in Brasil is comparable to super fine, or “bar sugar” in the US. It melts and mixes easily. “Bar sugar” is kind of a lost item in American bars these days with the prevalent use of simple syrup that has taken its place. Regular table sugar in the US is a bit too coarse for making cocktails, and there is a real lack of general knowledge of bar sugar hence the reliance on simple syrup in cocktails here in the States. American table sugar grinds up what you want to muddle too much, and is also not nearly as soluble as the fine sugar.

I’ve seen many recipes that use brown or raw sugar. Brown or raw sugar are almost non-existent in Brasil and, although they make a rich Caipirinha and seem rustic, neither are or should be used in making a classic one.
Brasilians like things sweet. I like balance, but it’s all in the eye of the beholder. Adjust sweetness and tartness to your own taste, but be careful your adjustments overflow and imbalance the spirits.

Let’s talk about limes now.


Regular Persian limes in Brasil tend to be smaller than in the US where they sometimes get as big as lemons. That large size can throw off your Caipirinha if you use a whole giant one in a small glass. So try to purchase medium to small limes. Always adjust to the size of glass. If you have a giant lime, use only half of it or 3/4 of it. You will have to use your own judgement here. It’s easy.

When buying limes, choose ones that are rounder and have smooth, thin skins, with hardly any dimples. These limes are juicier and give up their juice easier, there is less pith and less bitterness. The more elongated limes with dimpled skin tend to have very thick skins and interiors. They feel hard. This means less juice and makes the limes more difficult to juice as well. A few trips to the grocer and you will be able to verify the difference easily.

Notice the two limes pictured above. The top lime is elongated and dimpled. Inside the pith and skin are much more dominant, making the lime harder and less juicy. The one on the bottom is nearly spherical, and inside the pith and skin is hardly noticeable. It is full of juice.


Cachaça is made from sugar cane. It is a style of rum called rhum agricole. The most recognizable rum to most Americans is rhum industriale. Bacardi, Myer’s, Appleton Estate, Mount Gay etc..are all this style. The difference between them is that rhum industriale is distilled from molasses, a byproduct of sugar making, and rhum agricole is made from fermented cane juice. The flavors are completely different. In the French Carribbean, rhum agricole is used in a cocktail similar to the Caipirinha, Ti Punch, which is lime juice, cane syrup and rhum agricole.

 rhum agricole

There are many cachaças in the US market today. Some are old standards from the large industrial distilleries in Brasil like “51”, Pitu, and Velho Barreiro. There are also many home distilled or artisanal cachaças made all over Brasil that may have nothing more than a hand written label. There are also some larger artisanal brands of cachaça being produced now such as Novo Fogo and Sagatiba that are really bringin the level of taste and quality to new heights.

Finally we have the cachaças made for the US or international markets such as Cabana and Leblon. If you are at a beach or barzinho (bar-zeen-yo) or botequim (bo-che-keen) in Rio,  you will almost assuredly get one of the big national brands like “51” in your caiprinha. But there are bars in Brasil  where you can get amazing cocktails and caipirinhas or riffs on caipirinhas made with a huge array of different cachaças; aged, flavored, from different regions and in different styles..etc..


This drink is always made with cracked or chunks of ice. Clear bag ice from the grocery store is perfect. If you are using something like Kold Draft large format ice, then you will have to crack it. It is important that the ice melts some with the drink. The drink is muddled and built in the glass, then shaken and poured back into the glass or cup. It is important that your glass be FILLED with ice. This brings the temperature down fast with the perfect amount of melt and regulates the amount of spirits to top off the glass..

8 oz Rocks Glass
Wooden muddler
1 Small Lime
1 Heaping Tblsp of Super Fine sugar
Ice to fill glass
Cachaça to fill glass
I prefer NOVO FOGO Cachaça


This is a detailed step and almost always never done in the US. It really does make a big difference in taste, appearance and ease of muddling.

Your lime

Cut the ends off your lime

 Cut the lime lengthwise into quarters

 Cut the center white rib out of each quarter

 Cut the pieces into eighths

 Add to glass

 Add sugar to taste (2 regular spoons or a big tblspn)

 Muddle until sugar is dissolved and all juice extracted

Fill glass with ice

 Fill glass with cachaça

Pour contents into shaker and shake hard

Return all contents, unstrained, back to glass. Top with more ice if needed.
short straw

This is the classic Brazilian Caipirinha




I previously wrote on the subject of simple syrup and what I believe are preferred ratios of sugar to water (RATIONALE OF SUGAR SYRUP).
I wanted to take that rationale a step further and expand on the balancing and blending of acid, sugar and spirits for cocktails and other drinks in general.
Well-balanced ratios are key to making good cocktails.  Once the ratio of acid to sugar to water is in your glass is upset, your drink will suffer with little ability for repair.
In the first article, the focus was on making and using simple syrup, with the point being that simple syrup was originally created to make pre-dissolved sugar so it would be easily mixable in cold drinks and cocktails. Granulated sugar does not dissolve easily in cold drinks and making simple syrup eliminates this problem.
The critique I had with many, if not most, bars and bartenders today, was the unquestioned use of a 1-1 ratio of sugar to water *, thus making more of a sugar-water than the just pre-dissolved sugar desired for easily mixing in cocktails.
Reasons for this 1-1 being the standard, I believe, are a general inexperience and relative youth of the new bartenders in this cocktail renaissance and ease of making 1-1 syrup without the need for a kitchen, general misinformation mixed with herd mentality.  All you have to do at the bar is shake up some warm water and sugar and voila!  I’ve heard reasons for it from many people, but none have anything to do with taste or balance. 1-1 is easier to pour and make is the gist of the support for 1-1. But what you gain from taking the small amount of extra time to pre-make a rich syrup is better control of sugar and water in your glass and a better syrup for mixing cocktails. It is pre worked. It is part of your mis en place. It is what you want.
I will take this a step further then in discussing the next step that is also rarely seen today, but was a staple of old school bartending:  Fresh Sour Mix.

To eliminate the need for water in dissolving sugar, one can skip it’s use altogether and mix fresh juice and cane sugar until dissolved. The sugar and citrus then become a very concentrated and pre-balanced sour mix ready to expand in your shaker tin with the proper ratio to spirit and ice melt. 
This sour mix is not the over-produced gooey mixture of lemon, lime, eggs, corn syrup, sugar, powdered ingredients and other things, although this is an old school style that, done right, is delicious. This sour is just pre-mixing your lemon or lime and cane sugar. 
Once made, fresh sour can be thought of as one ingredient and used in many mixed drinks as well as non-alcoholic drinks. My rule of thumb in making a fresh lemon or lime sour is 1-1.  (eg 1 cup sugar and 1 cup juice). This is actually a little less than 1-1 by weight. *
*I’m referring to dry volume and liquid volume rather than weight so it isn’t exactly 1-1 and in fact is less than 1-1 by weight since 1 cup of sugar weighs about 7 ounces and 1 cup of water is about 8 ounces. Most people refer to the ratio this way, and that is why I haven’t changed that, but do want to acknowledge this. Also, first and foremost, ratios should always reflect the taste and balance that you or your guest prefer.
One can easily see how ratios in cocktails can often be horribly imbalanced by the measured or overuse of citrus and then under using sugar in your syrup and putting that ratio into your cocktail. An example of a typical error is making a Daiquiri with 2 oz rum, 1 oz lime juice and 1/2 oz 1-1 simple syrup. This drink is half lime juice…yuck This much lime needs an ounce of sugar to balance it and with 1-1 simple it is getting 1/4 of that.  The approximately 1 ounce of sugar needed to balance the 1 ounce of lime would mean using a whopping 2 ounces of 1-1 simple. You can see that there is no way to fix this mess once it is in your glass.
One full ounce of lemon or lime is, by my taste, far too much for most mixed drinks and then on top of this, the sugar that would be needed to balance this already imbalanced ratio further imbalances your drink. 
The ratio I prefer is 2 oz rum 1 oz Fresh Lime Sour (.5 oz lime +.5 oz sugar). This gives the rum some breathing room for you to taste and enjoy and open up with the light lime flavors and aromas that are now also able to open up.
While overuse of water in simple syrup is something I believe should be avoided, water is still a very important part of the balanced cocktail.
When you employ a sour mix you have all the control in your hands. The water melt from your ice is generally all the extra dilution you will need, unless you are making fresh lemon or lime “ades” or sodas.  I think of the ice melt as the air in a round balloon, the common denominator. It is what expands the balloon (your pre made, room temp cocktail) into a balanced and drinkable mixture.
The other dilution of the “sour” comes from the spirit itself…they actually modify each other and thus need to be in balance.
The imbalance of bad simple and the consequent overuse of citrus is two fold, as I mentioned above.
One ounce of lime in a cocktail should get about one ounce of dry sugar…thus the need for two ounces of 1-1 syrup resulting in three ounces of mixer before you even add the spirits. Many bartenders use one ounce of simple or less thus making most drinks of this nature overly acidic and imbalanced. One ounce of bad simple and one ounce of lime juice make a very sour sour and also a watery sour that over powers the spirits and gets even more watered down after shaking.
The lime is looking for more sugar…the sugar is looking for less lime and they are both looking for less pre-shake water…and the poor spirits are overwhelmed.
In a fresh Gimlet, for example, that little bit of balanced sour being used packs a lot of flavor. A 2-1, 3-1 or even 4-1 spirit to sour ratio are all balanced with the 2-1 being obviously less spirit focused and 4-1 much more spirit focused. I like the 3-1 as a perfect fit between the two. But this way of thinking gives you control over the spirit to acid/sugar/water ratio by creating that initial sour balance to begin with. You can then choose how spirit forward you wish your cocktail to be.
The beauty of fresh sour here, then, is taking two ingredients and making one out of them. I find that this also makes it easier for many people to think about balance…rather than think in terms of simple or sugar, citrus, spirit etc. In this case all you have to do now is consider balancing the spirits and sour mix.
It’s a way of thinking in terms of the sweet and acid as one balanced ingredient and that thinking can also be used when considering liqueurs in place of simple or sugar. 
This can be the base for many drinks and the base for lemonades and limeades by shaking with more water. Lemon and lime zest can be added for more citrus aromas. Other fruits can be incorporated for more complex sours.
1 Part Lemon Juice
1 Part Cane Sugar
1 Part Lime Juice
1 Part Cane Sugar


1 Part Lime Juice
1 Part Ginger Syrup

(Infused Syrups)

1 Part Lemon Juice
1 Part Orange Juice
1 Part Cane Sugar
 All juices should be fresh and strained
Stir all of these at room temp until the sugar has dissolved.
2 oz Bourbon
1 oz California Style Sour Mix
Orange Peel or Wheel
Shake hard and strain into fresh iced rocks glass.
Garnish as you see fit. A dash of Angostura works well on top.


1 Part Lemon or Lime/Ginger-Lime Sour
3-4 Parts Ice Water

This works well with all infused syrups for flavored ades

In David Embury’s classic tome, The Fine Art of Mixing Drinks, he prefers a sour ratio of 1 part sweet to 2 parts sour.  But lets look deeper into what he is saying.
After listing many, many ratios at all extremes during this epoch, he settles on the above ratio and prefers it’s “dryness” for a before dinner drink and for that reason only. His rationale is that this ratio is best for an aperitif and the addition of more sugar will ruin your appetite (I don’t agree since many aperitifs are much sweeter than 1-1 sour). He labeled this ratio as “dry”. But I have to say that I believe the dryness comes out more with a higher ratio of spirit to sour that he professes, and in this we are more in agreement. His ratio is 8 parts spirit, 2 parts acid and 1 part rich syrup. 
Embury is a strong proponent of very rich simple syrup (3-1), in this case the sweet should absolutely be pure sugar or 3-1 syrup, but not 1-1 simple syrup. This mix is really good this way and isn’t as sour as it might look since nearly pure sugar is being used to offset the sour and the water in the syrup is now a negligible part of the ratio.
We can then take this that step further and pre-mix the sour rather than use even rich syrup. You then have a pure citrus and sugar blend ready to use in whatever ratio you prefer.
1 Part 3-1 Sugar Syrup
2 Parts Lime or Lemon Juice
8 Parts Gin
This is very close to the 3-1 Gin Gimlet recipe that follows. This also demonstrates how the use of a whole ounce of lemon or lime would require a 4oz pour of base spirit thus creating a very large drink, indeed. The ratio is the key.
When using liqueurs in drinks, using a premade sour, generally, doesn’t make sense. Liqueurs impart flavor by using infused/flavored spirit and sugar. So adding more sugar by the use of sour is redundant. Think of the liqueur as your sugar/sweetening agent and the citrus to balance that out.
Liqueurs have different amounts of sugar and different densities as well as percentages of alcohol. All of these must be taken into consideration when balancing with citrus. Generally the sweeter and denser a liqueur is, the more citrus you will need to balance the sugar. This is one area that your own taste and experience must come into play because each situation is different. This can also be more complicated by the use of other sweet or tart ingredients such as sweet or tart juices, fruits, aperitifs, sweet or dry wines, etc.. Bitterness and saltiness are different stories but do play a part in this balancing act when included in the recipe.
Cointreau and some other Curaçãos and Triple Secs are generally dry and light and not as sweet or syrupy as other liqueurs or rich simple syrup or fructose as in corn syrup or agave nectar, so care must be made in order to not over use citrus in these styles. Ratios will change depending on the sweetness of liqueurs used. I think taste is the best way to figure this out, although you could take a more scientific path and use brix/specific gravity to figure out particular sugar content
My experience and taste usually is 2 parts Cointreau to 1 part lime juice. In this ratio the lime modifies the dry orange liqueur without overwhelming it.
With that sweet/acid balance made, you can then modify the Tequila. My ratio for the Margarita is 4 parts tequila, 2 parts Cointreau and 1 part lime juice.  (I prefer the use of ratios rather than exact amounts for most recipes as it makes it easier to adjust for any sized amounts of the end product and also gives you an idea of the balance the recipe is calling for)
I believe a Margarita or any sour of this nature should be heavily focused on the base spirit and then modified by a perfectly balanced sweet/acid mixture.
The tequila is the star in a Margarita. The Margarita is not a long drink, it shouldn’t be made in giant glasses, so mixers should be minimal in ratio with the Tequila The drink is powerful, but amazingly refreshing, not boozy tasting and is easy to drink. No unbalanced tartness, no cloying syrupy sweetness.
I have seen horrible ratios of 2 oz Tequila `1 oz Lime and up to 1 ounce of agave nectar. In this ratio your “mix” is actually equal parts to the Tequila. This drink is cloying, syrupy, tart and overwhelms the Tequila. One other mistake I often see of is the idea that the Triple Sec isn’t sweet enough for the lime so you need to use some simple to help. This is astonishing to me since it is a backward way of saying there is too much lime in the drink to begin with…or not enough Cointreau. Yet rather than cut the lime, or add more Triple sec, people will use simple. Astonishing.


Hard shake and strain over iced rocks glass or a chilled cocktail glass
In this day and age the abover ratio might cause many bartenders concern or outright disagreement.  I would just say try it first. These are only experienced suggestions and taste is subjective so the drinker must find the ratios and balance that they prefer.
This drink does not call for a liqueur so the Gin will take an even more dominant role. Whether using a sweetened lime cordial or a fresh lime and sugar sour, it will still have about the same ratio.  The lime cordial is already a pre-made, sour-like ingredient, so care has to be taken with your preferred ratios, but they are roughly the same. This works beautifully for Daiquiris…minus the cordial.
¾ or 1 oz FRESH LIME SOUR (1-1) OR
Shake and strain into iced rocks glass or chilled cocktail glass


Here is the recipe for the cocktail I submitted for the TOC Official cocktail for 2013

The riff to be created was on the Rickey, a very simple gin, soda and lime drink. Bright and refreshing. Not cloying. Great for a sweltering, hot day.
I wanted to stay true to the style of this drink while altering it in ways that clearly differentiated it from the original.
My wish is  for the first time imbiber of this cocktail to comment that this was very much like a Rickey, but pleasantly different.
Most importantly, however, is that it be light, refreshing and very drinkable. 
Dressed in my seersucker suit on a hot, July day in Washington D.C. …I could see sipping on a few more than one of these.


.5 oz Lime Juice
1 oz Grapefruit Juice
Chilled Club Soda
Grapefruit Peel
16 oz Highball
Large Format Ice
In a mixing glass filled with ice, add spirits and fresh citrus juices
Stir briefly just to chill
Strain into iced 16oz Highball glass
 Top with chilled club soda
One long spoon stir to lightly mix
Squeeze grapefruit peel over glass and add to glass.
Long Straw
The gin here was a no-brainer. I wanted to stay with lime as the tart acid and to compliment that I decided to add a touch of bitterness and sweetness along with fresh grapefruit. I love the way light bitter aperitifs and grapefruit go together. and I thought of those together as one ingredient.
This was a significant change from the original, yet stayed true to my goals. I refrained from the temptation to add other things or jazz it up more, as that might look good on paper or a wow factor, but would absolutely erode the intended goals and philosophy of this drink.


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Every year in June I make the 7-hour drive due north from Chicago to Eagle River, Wisconsin, where my parents, Gary and Anne, live.
Not only is it Father’s Day, but also my mother’s birthday.
People might gasp at such things today, but I grew up in a cocktail culture where cocktails and afternoon cocktail parties were the norm for family get-togethers. And the 1960’s-70’s, when I was in my formative years, were no different,
The cocktail has always been a part of Wisconsin culture. But over the time period of cocktail Dark Ages in the U.S., the drinking culture also devolved with the use of poor quality spirits, technique and mass-produced mixers. But even during this dark period, Wisconsin continued to maintain solid links to the old school cocktail culture that was completely lost in most of the country
My grandpa August Appel carried a bartending case with him when he and my grandma Mitzi came to visit. He always assumed the role of bartender and would ask the folks, uncles and aunts, friends and cousins old enough to drink, what cocktail they would like. Gimlets, Manhattans, Old Fashioneds, and Martinis were the standard even if they were made with E&J Brandy, Fleischman’s Gin or Kessler Whiskey. Angostura was always there. Kiddie cocktails were made for those under 18.
I had no idea at that time that one day I would begin honing the craft of bartending and cocktail creation, so these memories mean even more to me now.
We still love cocktail hour in the Northwoods surrounded by great Wisconsin cheeses, sausages, relish trays and fish fries. The only difference today is the quality of spirits and drinks along with a richer cocktail menu.
Pitcher of Manhattans
Favorite cocktails for the early evening pontoon boat cruise around Bass Lake.
I generally make a pitcher of Manhattans for my father, myself and anyone else who wishes one. I mix one cocktail each to carry on board and then pre-batch a pitcher so I can stir them on the boat since the ride will last longer than a single Manhattan.
My mother loves gin, so she often orders a Martini, so I will also bring an extra few in another pitcher for her and other guests.  We almost always drink these cocktails on the rocks. They last longer and are sippers, rather than gulpers.
On a hot day cocktail cruise we more often stretch the spirits out by making long drinks.
Refreshing variations on Rickey’s and other Gin sodas, tonics, bitter lemon or rum cocktails are the norm.
1 oz Rye Whiskey (Generally Rittenhouse or Templeton up North)
1 oz Cognac (They just call it brandy in Wisconsin) Pierre Ferrand 1840
.5 oz Carpano Antica
.5 oz Dolin
Angostura Bitters
Homemade Door County Cherry (from the Cherry Bounce we make every year)
This recipe might seem a bit convoluted, especially for a minimalist like me, but I love the sweetness and fruitiness of the cognac mixed with the dry, spicy rye whiskey. The same goes for the Carpano and Dolin. The Carpano is exquisite vermouth and I love it, but can overpower the base spirit. I like to mix vermouths here, rather than just use a lighter ratio. Why not? This is like the meeting of two Manhattans. A strong and bold Manhattan and a light, sweet, fruit forward Manhattan.
Add all spirits to a cocktail pitcher (multiply quantities by the number of drinks desired) filled with ice. Stir until chilled and ice forms on the glass. Pour over iced rocks glass and add two cherries and a half a spoonful of the cherry bounce. It’s not part of the official recipe, but somehow always gets in there
Gin and Bitter Lemon

2 oz London Dry Style Gin (Beefeater 24, Tanqueray or Fords Gin)
1 oz Grapefruit Cordial
Club Soda
Grapefruit Peel
Splash of Campari or Cocci Americano
This is such a simple and beautiful long drink, light and refreshing and full of botanical and grapefruit aromas. Perfect on a hot summer day. A few small, key techniques are necessary to make it perfectly.
It is very important to chill the cordial and gin before pouring onto the iced tall glass and on hot summer days that step takes on even more significance. 
This ensures that the room temperature spirits and mixers do not attack the ice and unduly melt it. I find this as important to this style drink as using chilled cocktail glasses for up drinks.
The soda must be fresh and also well chilled.
Making sure you use chilled ingredients gives your in-glass-ice a fighting chance, especially on a hot day. It also ensures that your soda maintains its carbonation. Warm soda on cold ice makes a mess and immediately saps all the carbonation when it hits the ice.
This drink is easily riffed upon by adding some bitter element that pairs well with grapefruit and gin. Campari, Aperol or Cocci Americano.
This can also be made into a Summer Negroni. The grapefruit works well with all the Negroni ingredients and the chilled soda stretches the drink out and makes it lasting and refreshing for a hot summer day.
1.5 oz Beefeater or other quality London Dry Gin
.5 oz Campari
.5 oz Carpano Antica for a stronger bitterness or Dolin for a lighter sweetness
1 oz Grapefruit Cordial
Grapefruit Peel
Same instructions as above Gin Soda
Always feel free to modify this and other drinks to your own taste



While the U.S. consumer has been in open revolt against the industry wide use of High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFC) as a cheap sweetener in almost every food or drink for several decades, Agave Nectar was being marketed to the cocktail world…. and it went viral.
Coca Cola purists have been importing “Mexican” Coke (Coca Cola made with cane sugar) for years because the beverage industry in the U.S. forced the use of a cheap and unnatural form of sweetener, High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFC), on an unknowing consumer with the aid of enormous U.S. corn subsidies and a murky food manufacturing monopoly of ADM and Cargill. The industry refuses to admit there is a difference in taste, but one sample of Coke with HFC vs Coke with sugar and you will immediately realize what a sham HFC is for taste and texture.
There is also a firestorm of debate raging today over the HFC industry and the many health questions surrounding it. This is where agave nectar now joins the debate.  Agave nectar is a high fructose syrup and in many cases even higher in fructose than HFC.
Because it isn’t naturally occurring in corn or agave, this type of sweetener (fructose) must be made by changing the starches from corn or an agave piña into sugar” rather than just pressing cane for it’s sweet juice or tapping a maple tree for it’s sap and boiling it down to a natural syrup and then into crystalline form…It is done chemically with HFC (by use of hydrochloric acid), by malting and/or mashing and heating a wort for whiskey and by heating the agave piña (roasting in the old way for making tequila) or, in some cases, with chemicals or enzymes for agave nectar, to create the sugars…you know the rest. This is great for fermenting and then distilling into white dog or tequila…but as just a sweetener?   Hmmm..
Health questions aside (and I suggest researching this on your own)… the point of the argument at hand here is that agave nectar is just not a good ingredient in most cocktails and drinks…and here’s why
 It lingers and doesn’t give you a clean finish. It doesn’t matter if you add water (which you need to do) to cut the nectar for cold drinks; it still has the same effect. It also adds a flavor that is, arguably, off putting in many drinks that should be cleaner…most notably, the Margarita.
Regardless of whether you like agave or not in your drinks, it does add a foreign flavor that just isn’t called for in any classic drink. Agave nectar has nothing in common with the flavors imparted by good agave spirits (tequilas and mescals) and is more akin to honey, sorghum or corn syrup…and on second thought, not anything close to what I would use to sweeten my Margarita.  For the same reason I don’t want HFC in my Coca Cola, I don’t want agave nectar in my Margarita. Cane sugar or a high quality triple sec are the only choice in a Margarita.
Sucrose (the bulk of cane sugar), on the other hand, is clean and naturally occurring. Refined, it still has a certain “flavor”, but mostly it is a flavor neutral ingredient. It is there to impart the sweetness that your tongue senses and wants for itself or to balance other tastes…sour, bitter and salt… while not imparting unwanted flavor that might interfere with the balance of whatever it is you are making.
Even if you wish to use brown, “raw” or other stage processed sugars for the sweetness and the robust flavor, the finish and texture is cleaner than HFC or agave nectar.
This is exactly the reason people are prying open the market for imported sodas from Mexico and retro soda launches that use cane sugar rather than HFC. It is cleaner and crisper on the palate. It refreshes.
But there is a use for agave or similar style sweeteners based on taste and viscosity and for the same reason they aren’t generally good in cold drinks.; they coat your palate. Agave nectar and honey work well in hot drinks for sore throats; hot honey and lemon. The heat thins the agave or honey and thus it can be good in hot drinks for that warming and coating effect. In my youth, when sick, my mother would make hot honey and lime for my sore throat. For the longest time tasting a Margarita made with agave nectar it reminded me of something familiar and it finally dawned on me that this is what it was.
There are rarely absolutes in anything, especially with food and drink, so if you like agave in your cocktail, then by all means use it. But if you look and taste a little closer, I think you will realize agave nectar has been hyped in the cocktail world and made into a fad ingredient based on dubiously inferred benefits, tastes, “authenticity”, the use of terms “natural” and “organic”, and is in dire need of a deeper look in both it’s healthfulness and it’s taste and texture in your cocktail.  
Margarita please!…and hold the agave nectar 

Articles and Links
The HFC industry tried to get the FDA to change the term High Fructose Corn Syrup  to Corn Sugar
All about how your body absorbs fructose and sucrose.
Published on the Weston Price Foundation’s website (I neither endorse nor reject the philosophy of this site). Agave nectar production and history.